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RF Safety Applications

More Project Photographs

Photographs and details of some additional projects completed by RF Safety Solutions.


  • 30 Rockefeller Plaza
    The 70th floor observation deck nearing completion. Two RF surveys and reports were completed. RF safety programs for the constructiona phase and for the completed roof were written.
  • 30 Rockefeller Plaza under construction
    Most of the antennnas were moved temporarily.
  • Empire State Building
    The Empire State Building as viewed from the observation deck of 30 Rockefeller Plaza.
  • ABC BO & E Logo
    RF surveys and RF safety reports and many RF safety training classes have been completed for the ABC television network group.
  • Antenna Farm in Pennsylvania
    An RF survey and RF safety report were completed for this site.
  • CNBC
    An RF survey and an RF safety report plus training were completed for this facility.
  • Antenna Farm in California
    An RF survey and RF safety report were completed for this site.
  • ESPN
    Numerous RF surveys and RF safety reports plus many RF safety training classes have been conducted for ESPN.
  • Semiconductor Facility
    The survey for this facility involved not only checking for compliance but measuring very low levels to insure safety for personnel with implanted medical devices.
  • Hughes Network Systems
    An RF survey and RF safety report plus RF safety training were completed for this client.
  • Military SATCOM
    An RF survey and RF safety report plus RF safety training were completed for this client.
  • RF Heat Sealers
    RF measurements of these heat sealers led to equipment modifications.
  • Waveguide Failure
    This short section of Ku-band flexible waveguide failed while installed in a satellite news gathering (SNG) vehicle. A analysis and report were completed to illustrate potential field strengths from the leak.
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
    Two RF surveys, including on-tower measurements, and reports plus basic and advanced measurement training were conducted for this U.S. government agency.
  • View of FM from TVA Tower
  • University Radio
    This FM station is located on the roof of a domitory at a major university. An RF survey and RF safety report were completed.
  • Hospital Roof
    This is the roof of a major university hospital where an RF survey and an RF safety report were completed. Facilities personnel were trained to operate safety on the roof.
  • WaterTank
    An analysis of RF fields on the water tank was made to determine safety procedures during the painting of this water tank at Cornell University.
  • Yonkers Roof
    An RF survey and an RF safety report were completed for this roof.
    This is the new broadcast site for WEPN-AM that had to move from its former site due to the Xanadu construction project at the Meadowlands Sports Complex. An RF survey and RF safety report were completed.



Our experience covers a broad range of systems and equipment. The technical challenges of measuring Global Maritime Safety and Distress System (GMSDS) sites for the Coast Guard, which operate at frequencies just above the AM radio band, are vastly different from evaluating a satellite communications facility, synthetic aperture radar systems, or a communications mast on a nuclear submarine—and each of these is very different from measuring typical wireless sites. The potential RF safety hazards at these sites vary dramatically—from concerns over induced currents, to burn hazards and concerns over eye damage from waveguide leaks. These systems require different measurement techniques as well as RF safety training that focuses on the potential risks unique to those types of systems for the employees who work on them.

Here are some interesting projects completed by RF Safety Solutions. You may find some of the pictures very interesting.

The high-power C-band Range Safety & Telemetry System (RSTS) antennas and the Flight Termination System (FTS) antennas used for tracking and command, control, and destruct of the missiles launched from the Kodiak Island Launch Complex present unique RF safety concerns. Because the launch complex and the separate tracking facility on the coast are so far north, these directional antennas actually point below horizontal at the time of launch. Surveys and the subsequent RF safety reports at facilities like this must focus not only on measured field strength but on “what if” scenarios. The custom training program must also address the unique issues at these sites.

  • Kodiak Island, Alaska
  • Missile Defense Agency Logo
  • RSTS Command Trailer
    The Randge Safety & Telemetry system tracks and controls missiles.
  • RSTS on Kodiak Island
  • Radar on Kodiak Island
  • RSTS
  • Radar in  King Salmon
  • RSTS in King Salmon


American Tower logoHow do you train nearly 300 field personnel that each work on their own? Ten RF Safety LiveCast™ sessions were taught with 25 to 35 people signed in from separate locations at each class. One advantage of the live training is that it is very interactive, both between the instructor and the students and between the students, who have the ability to learn from each other. Training sessions were updated as new information was gleaned from the field personnel about some of the very unique sites owned and managed by American Tower.

Because Alaska is a very big state, wireless tower sites are located in areas that are frequently inaccessible. Conducting RF surveys of more than 20 sites is time-consuming and costly—and not necessary to determine compliance with FCC Regulations. Rather than spend a great deal of money to have a technician travel to Alaska to make measurements, RF Safety Solutions provided a different solution. Data on each site was gathered by the company and supplied along with pictures. Several worst-case antenna installations were analyzed using sophisticated computer-modeling software designed specifically for the task. The resulting, comprehensive report not only proved conclusively that all the sites were compliant at ground level, but it provided the foundation for developing a comprehensive RF safety program for those who climb the towers. With the sites assessed and a complete RF safety program in place, personnel were trained live via the Internet—RF Safety LiveCast™—with a single training session. The cost for the site evaluation, report, safety program, and training was less than 25 percent of the proposed cost just to make measurements!

  • Aklestad site
  • Bailey site
  • Bald Mountain site
  • Birch Harbor site
  • ClearSky Lodge site
  • Houston sete
  • Stans site


The Meadowlands Xanadu Project is a five-story retail and entertainment complex undergoing construction in the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey. Xanadu will be the largest retail and entertainment complex in the United States and the third largest in the world, with 4,500,000 square feet (418,000 square meters) of entertainment, sports, retail, office, and hotel space. It features the only indoor, downhill ski run in the country and will soon have the largest Ferris wheel in the Americas and the second-largest in the world. The Meadowlands area of New Jersey, which is located due west and in sight of Manhattan, is the site of 11 AM radio broadcast stations. The stations were located in this area because much of the land is not useful for buildings due to the wetlands, and so it was generally inexpensive.

Operating large cranes anywhere in the Meadowlands area has always been a challenge since the cranes make very effective AM radio antennas. The Xanadu Project brought concerns over this problem to unprecedented levels because some of the buildings are less than 300 feet from a 50,000-Watt, three-tower array. Special work procedures had to be developed to allow work to proceed. All the buildings had to be constructed so that they function as RF shields.

The last item scheduled for installation is the Ferris wheel. The 300-foot-high wheel, the largest in the Western Hemisphere, will be located about 200 feet (60 meters) from the AM radio towers.  Grounding and testing of the wheel introduces some unique challenges.

    The three towers are within 100 yards of the closest building.
  • Xanadu Project Site
    The Xanadu project site. The new Meadowlands football stadium can be seen on the left.
  • Xanadu Cranes
    Cranes make very good AM radio antennas
  • Arcing on crane
    RF voltage levels as high as 2.9 kV have been measured. Touching the crane while grounded would result in up to 8 amps of current flowing through the body.
  • Ferris Wheel Site
    The planned Ferris wheel will be the largest in the western hemisphere.
  • Ferris Wheel Site Photo
    The gondolas of the Ferris wheel will be accessed from the second floor.
  • EMC Shielding Test Shelter
    EMC measurements were made inside this test shelter to verify the effectiveness of the RF shielding planned for the buildings.


Cornell University manages the Arecibo Observatory for the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. The 300-meter/1,000-foot-diameter reflector is the largest in the world. The feed is suspended from cables attached to three towers.
The site includes two extremely high-power radar systems. RF Safety Solutions evaluated the site, wrote a comprehensive RF safety report, and trained most of the personnel at the facility. Training ranged from basic awareness to measurement training for a few senior scientists. The 430-MHz radar has a peak power of 2.5 MW with an average power of up to 150 kW. The 2.38-MHz radar has an output power of 1,000,000 Watts CW!
This site was featured in the film Contact (1997), with Jodie Foster, and the Bond film GoldenEye (1995), with Pierce Brosnan. The view from the platform is spectacular!

  • Arecibo Observatory
    The National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center is managed by Cornell University. It is the world's most sensitive radar and radio telescope.
  • NAIC Map
  • Platform & Reflector
    The platform contains the feeds and one of the two transmitters. It is suspended by cables attached to three towers. The antenna is aimed by moving the feed, not the reflector.
  • Reflector
    The 305-meter (1,000-foot) diameter reflector is the largest in the world.
  • Platform & Tower
  • Platform
    The two feeds hang below the platform. The hemispheric dome on the left contains the Gregorian feed. The line feed can be seen hanging down on the left. This is where James Bond fought near the end of the movie Golden Eye.
  • Support Tower
    This tower near the visitors' center and the catwalk is one of three. Each tower is 500 to 600 feet tall.
  • Visitors' Center
    The visitors' center contains exhibits, a theatre, and a viewing platform that is located 200 feet (60 meters) above the rim of the reflector.


At one point, NBC owned and operated 30 broadcast television sites for its NBC and Telemundo networks. RF Safety Solutions visited each of these sites to conduct an RF survey and wrote a comprehensive RF safety report for each site. Personnel from the stations were trained live via the Internet via customized courses for different groups of personnel. NBC was one of our earliest RF Safety LiveCast™ customers. A comprehensive RF safety program was developed for NBC Television. Recently, RF Safety Solutions developed the content for a series of four interactive computer-based training (CBT) modules that are being created by General Electric’s (NBC-Universal’s parent company) learning center.

  • Black Mountain
    The Black Mountain antenna farm serves the Las Vegas, Nevada market.
  • SearsT ower
    SearsT ower, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Mt. Wilson
    Mt. Wilson contains more than 30 towers. Virtually all the TV stations and FM radio stations that serve the Los Angeles area are located on Mt. Wilson and nearby Mt. Harvard.
  • Mt. Wilson Weather
    The altitude at the top of Mt. Wilson is about 7,000 feet. It is not uncommon to be above the clouds.
  • Mt. Harvard
    Mt. Harvard is located adjacent to the large antenna farm on Mt. Wilson. The two mountains are northeast of Los Angeles, California.
  • Mt. Bruno
    Mt. Bruno is located just south of San Francisco, California.
  • South Mountain
    The big antenna farm located on South Mountain contains most of the TV and FM radio antennas that serve the greater Phoenix, Arizona market.
    KVDA-TV's 1520-foot tower is located southeast of San Antonio, Texas.
  • View at 1000 feet from KVDA tower
    The view from 1,000 feet up KVDA-TV's tower.
    KNSO-TV's antenna is in a small antenna farm in the mountains east of Fresno, California.
  • Cheyenne Mountain
    The small antenna farm on Cheyenne Mountain serves the Denver area.
  • Combination SNG & ENG Truck
    This truck contains both satellite and 2 GHz line-of-site antennas. The 2 GHz antenna is mounted on a telescoping mast.
  • 6.1 Meter Satellite-Uplink
    Many television stations use satellite-uplink antennas.
  • Transmitter Room
    A modern television tranmitter room.
  • Tucson Moutain
    The elevation at the top of Tucson Moutain is about 7,000 feet.
    WKAQ-TV serves the greater San Juan, Puerto Rico market. The transmitter is in a park on La Santa Peak.
    This tower outside Raleigh, North Carolina is about 2,000 feet high.
  • WRC-TV
    WRC-TV is located in Washington, DC.


SBE logoHow do you offer quality, affordable RF safety training to the several thousand members of SBE that are located in more than 100 chapters scattered across the United States? Live training via the Internet—RF Safety LiveCast™ sessions—are the answer. Small groups of 2 to 20 people located in several cities sign in for a course that lasts about 3.5 hours. Students have signed in from as far away as Johannesburg, South Africa. The sessions are always lively since the students can interact not only with the instructor but also with their fellow students at their own training site and students in other cities. Our partnership with SBE allows SBE to register the students and issue the certificates.

RF Safety Solutions conducted RF safety training for key management and technical personnel on both the East and West Coasts that were attended by personnel from all over the United States. The Global Maritime Safety and Distress System (GMSDS) was evaluated at two sites in Louisiana just days before the sites were hit by Hurricane Katrina. The primary antenna type used by GMSDS is a 54-foot, self-supporting, omnidirectional whip antenna. The second type of antenna is the Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) antenna. The NVIS is a horizontal, multiwire, center-fed antenna supported between two nearly vertical towers. Both antenna systems are capable of operating over the entire 2- to 30-MHz band. There were concerns at the site about exposure to significant RF fields as well as induced currents. The project included extensive calculations and predictions of induced currents using electric field measurement data. The goal was to determine the appropriate size of fenced enclosures and to establish safe work practices for Coast Guard personnel.

  • Grand Isle, LA
  • USCG Whip
    This is a 54-foot whip antenna at the USCG base on Lake Pontchartrain.
  • Grand Isle Whip Base
    This base at Grand Isle is elevated due to the frequent flooding.
  • Grand Isle Whip
    The Near Vertical Incidence Skywave antenna at Grand Isle, LA.


The Virginia class (or SSN-774 class) of attack submarines are U.S. subs designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral missions. They were designed as a less expensive alternative to the Cold War-era Seawolf-class attack submarines, and they are slated to replace the aging Los Angeles class subs. The Virginia-class incorporates several innovations not previously seen in other sub classes. Instead of a traditional periscope, the class utilizes a pair of telescoping photonics masts located outside the pressure hull. Each mast contains high-resolution cameras, along with light-intensification and infrared sensors, an infrared laser rangefinder, and an integrated Electronic Support Measures (ESM) array. Two Multifunction Communications Mast Antenna Systems are installed in the sail of each submarine. Each mast can handle a vast array of communications systems ranging from high frequency (HF) to the millimeter-band MILSTAR system.

At sea, these antennas radiate from a height of several feet above the heads of the sailors located on the bridge and in the lookout hole on the top of the sail. There were concerns over possible RF exposure when in port where a two-tier scaffolding rig, referred to as the racetrack, is installed on the top of the sail. A person standing on the upper level of the racetrack has his or her feet at the same elevation as the top of the sail and is thus both much closer to the antennas and no longer shielded by the ship’s hull. A complex set of single-system measurements were made, both from the racetrack and from a man lift basket in close proximity to the antennas of the USS New Hampshire (SSN 778) while it was docked at the submarine base in Groton, Connecticut. In addition, calculations were made to determine the safe distance from the concentrated beam radiating from the MILSTAR antenna to ensure the safety of crane operators. The detailed RF safety report has been distributed within General Dynamics’ Electric Boat Division and the U.S. Navy.

  • North Carolina Commissioning
    Commissioning ceremony for Virginia-class USS North Carolina
  • VA-class
    Virginia-class submarine on surface
  • Virginia Class Submarine
    Artist's conception of Virginia-class submarine underwater
  • Lift
    Measurements were made close to the antennas using this lift
  • Racetrack
    This two-tier scafolding rig is often installed on submarines while in port.
  • Racetrack and Sail
    The racetrack and sail looking aft.
  • Radar Bridge
    A sailor on the bridge with the radar in the background and the lookout hole in the foreground.

RF Safety Solutions can help you with your RF safety issues. Contact us.